# Overview¶

Scaling up the computational resources is a big advantage for doing certain large scale calculations on OSG. Consider the extensive sampling for a multi-dimensional Monte Carlo integration or molecular dynamics simulation with several initial conditions. These type of calculations require submitting lot of jobs.

In the previous example, we submitted the job to a single worker machine. About a million CPU hours per day are available to OSG users on an opportunistic basis. Learning how to scale up and control large numbers of jobs to realizing the full potential of distributed high throughput computing on the OSG.

In this section, we will see how to scale up the calculations with simple example. Once we understand the basic HTCondor script, it is easy to scale up.

## Background¶

For this example, we will use computational methods to estimate pi. First, we will define a square inscribed by a unit circle from which we will randomly sample points. The ratio of the points outside the circle to the points in the circle is calculated which approaches pi/4.

This method converges extremely slowly, which makes it great for a CPU-intensive exercise (but bad for a real estimation!).

## Set up an R Job¶

First, we'll need to create a working directory, you can either run `\$ tutorial ScalingUp-R` or type the following:

``````\$ mkdir tutorial-ScalingUp-R
\$ cd tutorial-ScalingUp-R
``````

## Create and test an R Script¶

Create an R script by typing the following into a file called `mcpi.R`:

``````args = commandArgs(trailingOnly = TRUE)
iternum = as.numeric(args[]) + 100

montecarloPi <- function(trials) {
count = 0
for(i in 1:trials) {
if((runif(1,0,1)^2 + runif(1,0,1)^2)<1) {
count = count + 1
}
}
return((count*4)/trials)
}

montecarloPi(iternum)
``````

If you want to test the script, start an R container, and then run the script using `Rscript`:

``````\$ singularity shell \
/cvmfs/singularity.opensciencegrid.org/opensciencegrid/osgvo-r:3.5.0
Singularity osgvo-r:3.5.0:~> Rscript mcpi.R 10
 3.14
Singularity osgvo-r:3.5.0:~> exit
\$
``````

If we were running a more intensive script, we would want to test our pipeline with a shortened, test script first.

## Create an Executable¶

As discussed in the Run R Jobs tutorial, we need to prepare the job execution and the job submission scripts. First, make a wrapper script called `R-wrapper.sh`.

 ```1 2 3 4 5 6``` ``````#!/bin/bash # set TMPDIR variable export TMPDIR=\$_CONDOR_SCRATCH_DIR Rscript mcpi.R ``````

This script will set the location for temporary files and execute our R script.

Test the wrapper script to ensure it works:

## Create a Submit File and Log Directory¶

Now that we have both our R script and wrapper script written and tested, we can begin building the submit file for our job. If we want to submit several jobs, we need to track log, out and error files for each job. An easy way to do this is to use the Cluster and Process ID values to create unique files for each process in our job.

Create a submit file named `R.submit`:

``````+SingularityImage = "/cvmfs/singularity.opensciencegrid.org/opensciencegrid/osgvo-r:3.5.0"

executable = R-wrapper.sh
arguments = \$(Process)
transfer_input_files = mcpi.R

log = log/job.log.\$(Cluster).\$(Process)
error = log/job.error.\$(Cluster).\$(Process)
output = log/mcpi.out.\$(Cluster).\$(Process)

queue 100
``````

Note the `queue 100`. This tells Condor to enqueue 100 copies of this job as one cluster. Also, notice the use of `\$(Cluster)` and `\$(Process)` to specify unique output files. HTCondor will replace these with the Cluster and Process ID numbers for each individual process within the cluster. Let's make the `log` directory that will hold these files for us.

``````\$ mkdir log
``````

## Submit the Jobs¶

Now it is time to submit our job! You'll see something like the following upon submission:

``````\$ condor_submit R.submit
Submitting job(s).........................
100 job(s) submitted to cluster 837.
``````

Apply your `condor_q` knowledge to see this job progress. Check your `log` folder to see the individual output files.

## Post Process⋅¶

Once the jobs are completed, you can use the information in the output files to calculate an average of all of our computed estimates of Pi.

To see this, we can use the command:

``````\$ cat log/mcpi*.out* | awk '{ sum += \$2; print \$2"   "NR} END { print "---------------\n Grand Average = " sum/NR }'
``````

# Key Points¶

• Scaling up the computational resources on OSG is crucial to taking full advantage of grid computing.
• Changing the value of `Queue` allows the user to scale up the resources.
• `Arguments` allows you to pass parameters to a job script.
• `\$(Cluster)` and `\$(Process)` can be used to name log files uniquely.

# Getting Help¶

For assistance or questions, please email the OSG User Support team at support@opensciencegrid.org.